The last gen­er­a­tion of the Open­Shoe track­ing mod­ule seen above is pre­sented in the paper:

[1] John-Olof Nils­son, Amit K Gupta, and Peter Hän­del. Foot-mounted iner­tial nav­i­ga­tion made easy ‚ In proc. IPIN 2014, Oct. 28–30, 2014.


The old gen­er­a­tion of the Open­Shoe mod­ules is pre­sented in the paper

[2] John-Olof Nils­son, Isaac Skog, Peter Hän­del, and K.V.S. Hari, Foot-mounted INS for Every­body — An Open-source Embed­ded Imple­men­ta­tion, in In Proc. 2012 IEEE/ION Posi­tion Loca­tion and Nav­i­ga­tion Sym­po­sium (PLANS), pp140-145, Myr­tle Beach, SC, USA, April 23–26, 2012.


In the fol­low­ing arti­cles it is shown how the plat­form may be inte­grated in a larger sys­tem, and com­plete infra­struc­ture free coop­er­a­tive local­iza­tion sys­tem based on the plat­form is presented

[3] John-Olof Nils­son, Dave Zachariah, Isaac Skog, and Peter Hän­del, Coop­er­a­tive local­iza­tion by dual foot-mounted iner­tial sen­sors and inter-agent rang­ing EURASIP Jour­nal on Advances in Sig­nal Pro­cess­ing 2013, 2013:164


[4] Nils­son, John-Olof; Han­del, Peter, Recur­sive Bayesian ini­tial­iza­tion of local­iza­tion based on rang­ing and dead reck­on­ing, Intel­li­gent Robots and Sys­tems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ Inter­na­tional Con­fer­ence on , vol., no., pp.1399,1404, 3–7 Nov. 2013
Repro­ducible research: code

The multi-IMU (MIMU) track­ing mod­ule sub­sys­tem is pre­sented in: (Note that an updated MIMU plat­form has been pre­sented since then. For fur­ther infor­ma­tion see the post Massive-MIMU.)

[5] Isaac Skog, John-Olof Nils­son, and Peter Hän­del, An Open-source Multi Iner­tial Mea­sure­ment Unit (MIMU) Plat­formThe 1st IEEE Inter­na­tional Sym­po­sium on Iner­tial Sen­sors and Sys­tems, Feb. 25–26, Laguna Beach, CA, USA, 2014

Fur­ther, analy­sis and a lit­er­a­ture review of multi-IMU sys­tems are found in:

[6] Isaac Skog, John-Olof Nils­son, Peter Hän­del, and Arye Neho­rai, “Iner­tial Sen­sor Arrays, Max­i­mum Like­li­hood, and Cramér–Rao Bound”, IEEE Trans­ac­tions on Sig­nal Pro­cess­ing, vol. 64, no. 16, pp. 4218 — 4227, 2016.
[7] John-Olof Nils­son and Isaac Skog, “Iner­tial sen­sor arrays — a lit­er­a­ture sur­vey”, Proc. of 2016 Euro­pean Nav­i­ga­tion Con­fer­ence (ENC), 30 May — 2 June, Helsinki, Fin­land, 2016.

A cal­i­bra­tion pro­ce­dure of the iner­tial plat­forms is pre­sented in

[8] John-Olof Nils­son, Isaac Skog, and Peter Hän­del, Align­ing the Forces—Eliminating the Mis­align­ments in IMU ArraysInstru­men­ta­tion and Mea­sure­ment, IEEE Trans­ac­tions on , vol.63, no.10, pp.2498 — 2500, 2014

Repro­ducible research: code.
Cal­i­bra­tion body: STL/SCAD



In the fol­low­ing pub­li­ca­tions, the Open­Shoe plat­form has been used:

[9] Isaac Skog, John-Olof Nils­son, Dave Zachariah, and Peter Hän­del. Fus­ing the Infor­ma­tion from Two Nav­i­ga­tion Sys­tems Using an Upper Bound on Their Max­i­mum Spa­tial Sep­a­ra­tion, In proc. IPIN 2012, nov 2012.

Pre­sen­ta­tion: IPIN2012 pre­sen­ta­tion
Repro­ducible research: code. (150 Mb)

[10] David Simón Colo­mar, John-Olof Nils­son, and Peter Hän­del. Smooth­ing for ZUPT-aided INSs, In proc. IPIN 2012, nov 2012.

Pre­sen­ta­tion: IPIN2012 pre­sen­ta­tion
Repro­ducible research: Code

[11] John-Olof Nils­son, Isaac Skog, and Peter Hän­del. A note on the lim­i­ta­tions of ZUPTs and the impli­ca­tion on sen­sor error mod­el­ing, In proc. IPIN 2012, nov 2012.

Pre­sen­ta­tion: IPIN2012 pre­sen­ta­tion


[12] Fran­cisco Zam­pella, Alessio De Ange­lis, Isaac Skog, Dave Zachariah, and Anto­nio Jiménez. A Con­straint Approach for UWB and PDR Fusion, In proc. IPIN 2012, nov 2012.

[13] G.V. Pra­teek, Girisha R, K.V.S. Hari, Peter Hän­del, “Data Fusion of Dual Foot-Mounted INS to Reduce the Sys­tem­atic Head­ing Drift,” in Proc. 4th Inter­na­tional Con­fer­ence on Intel­li­gent Sys­tems, Mod­el­ling and Sim­u­la­tion, 29–31 Jan 2013, Bangkok, Thailand.

[14] John-Olof Nils­son, Chris­t­ian Schüldt, and Peter Hän­del. Voice radio com­mu­ni­ca­tion, pedes­trian local­iza­tion, and the tac­ti­cal use of 3D audio, In proc. IPIN 2013, oct 2013.

[15] John-Olof Nils­son and Peter Hän­del. Stand­ing still with iner­tial nav­i­ga­tion, In proc. IPIN 2013, Oct 2013.

[16] Isaac Skog, John-Olof Nils­son and Peter Hän­del. Pedes­trian track­ing using an IMU arrayIn proc. IEEE CONECCT, 6–7 Jan, Ban­ga­lore, India, 2014.



The Open­Shoe group has pre­vi­ously pub­lished the fol­low­ing papers within the area of foot-mounted INS.


[17] Isaac Skog, Peter Hän­del, John-Olof Nils­son, and Jouni Rantakokko. Zero-Velocity Detec­tion — An Algo­rithm Eval­u­a­tion, IEEE Trans­ac­tions on Bio­med­ical Engi­neer­ing. 57:2657–2666, nov 2010.


[18] Isaac Skog, John-Olof Nils­son, and Peter Hän­del. Eval­u­a­tion of Zero-Velocity Detec­tors for Foot-Mounted Iner­tial Nav­i­ga­tion Sys­tems, In proc. IPIN 2010, sept 2010.

[19] John-Olof Nils­son, Isaac Skog, and Peter Hän­del. Per­for­mance char­ac­ter­i­sa­tion of foot-mounted ZUPT-aided INSs and other related sys­tems, In proc. IPIN 2010, sept 2010.


Together with Johan Wahlström at Oxford Uni­ver­sity,  the Open­Shoe group has devel­oped an adap­tive zero-velocity detec­tion method. The method is the pre­sented in the paper

[20]   Johan Wahlström, Isaac Skog, Fredrik Gustafs­son, Andrew Markham, and Niki Trigoni.  Zero-Velocity Detec­tion — A Bayesian Approach to Adap­tive Thresh­old­ing, accepted in IEEE Sen­sors Let­ters. (

Repro­ducible research:



















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